Paper Summary – Daydreaming

Giambra, Leonard M. (2000), “Daydreaming Characteristics Across the Life-Span: Age Differences and Seven to Twenty Year Longitudinal Changes,” in Individual Differences in Conscious Experience “It has happened to each of us, a spontaneous shift of attention from external stimuli to the contents of consciousness,Rolex Replica Watches i.e. we have daydreamed” Giambra has created a study in which to measure the content and frequency of daydreaming against age. His findings also touch upon why we may fall into the spell of a daydream in the first place. Past studies of daydreams have usually taken the form of either experimental or psychometric, Gaimbra went with the latter thus addressing the issue of whether the crafting and sustaining of daydreams declines with age using psychometric techniques. For the purpose of his research, he defines a daydream as “a thought or image which occurs spontaneously – not deliberately recalled from memory or directly elicited by a perpetual stimulus – and is unrelated to the task at hand” This definition supports the idea put forward by Antrobus (1968) and Giambra (1995) whose research demonstrates “that an inverse relationship exists between the time spent in daydreaming and the information processing demands of the external world.” Thus saying when the external world doesn’t hold our full attention we are more inclined to daydream of something that differs from our current emotion or task. Klinger (1971, 1990) has illustrated that daydreams tend to be crafted and related to “unfinished business” and “current concerns”. Parks, Klinger and Perlmutter (1988/9) have previous research that shows the elderly have fewer concerns thus meaning a reduced amount of reported daydreams. There is room for further study into what we discussed in class with Janice and how with age we appear to desire less therefore we find ourselves daydreaming less too. Could the feeling of desire correlate to regularity and the content of what we daydream? To determine the content of our daydreams Klinger (1996) IWC Replica has provided evidence that people are especially and subliminally sensitive to external information related to their current concerns and this may initiate or determine the content of, daydreams. The chances are heightened if the concern is stimulated with a particular emotional overlay or influence.

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    This relates much more to the notion that daydreaming is an everyday occurence and not necessarily related exclusivley to desire and consumer desires more specifially as consumer research in teh area would have us believe (e.g. Campbell 1987, McCracken 1988, Fourneir and Guiry 1993, d’Astous and Deschenes 2005). But the notion that desire may fade with age is interesting and links to the meaning of things in terms of cherished possessions/meaningful goods that are of more sentimental value for people as they get older. It also raises the concept of desire as potentially problematic – Belk et al (2003) describe it as an intense and passionate emotion that takes over us and controls us – but more recent critiques (e.g. Boujbel 2006) have noted that desire is an emotion that is experienced in different ways, it takes differnt forms and sits on a spectrum – so perhaps not only do older people experience less desire, but a different kind of desire too?

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Faculty of Media & Communication, Bournemouth University